Berkala Arkeologi <div class="intro"> <p align="justify"><br><em><strong>Dear Authors, Readers, and Colleagues</strong></em></p> <p align="justify">We are announcing that to mitigate the Covid-19 outbreak in Yogyakarta, we are required to work from home. Therefore, our editorial office in Balai Arkeologi Yogyakarta is temporarily closed from March 19th 2020.</p> <p align="justify">But despite of that, our editorial processes, business hours, and other publication affairs is still going as usual. We are still be able to provide services as usual, monitoring and managing our publication processes. We are working hard to make sure that our May 2020 Edition will not be affected in terms of punctuality and quality.</p> <p align="justify">Don't hesitate to contact us if you have any questions. Stay safe and alert.</p> <p align="justify">&nbsp;</p> <p align="justify">Regards,</p> <p align="justify"><br><strong>The Editorial Team</strong></p> </div> en-US <p>Click <a title="Copyright Notice" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a> to view our copyright notice.</p> (Hari Wibowo) (Bayu Indra Saputro, SIP.) Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0700 OJS 60 Cover Volume 40 No. 1 May 2020 <p>Cover Volume 40 No. 1 May 2020</p> Berkala Arkeologi Copyright (c) 2020 Berkala Arkeologi Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Appendix Volume 40 No. 1 May 2020 <p>Appendix Volume 40 No. 1 May 2020</p> Berkala Arkeologi Copyright (c) 2020 Berkala Arkeologi Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Preface Vol 40 No. 1 May 2020 <p>Pembaca yang budiman,</p> <p>Berkala Arkeologi pada tahun 2020 ini sudah menginjak tahun ke-40, suatu hal yang luar biasa dalam perjalanan panjang Jurnal Ilmiah. Sejak penerbitan pertama tahun 1980, secara manual dengan mesin ketik sampai dengan era digital, bahkan sampai pada era global Sistem Jurnal Terbuka (<em>O</em><em>pen </em><em>J</em><em>ournal System</em>). Untuk itu, Berkala Arkeologi pada edisi ini diharapkan mampu menunjukkan kematangannya dalam penyajian, baik substansi maupun manajerial jurnal. Berkala Arkeologi edisi Mei 2020 kali ini berbeda dengan edisi-edisi sebelumnya, diterbitkan dalam dua versi yaitu bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Inggris. Sebagian besar proses editorial masih menggunakan artikel berbahasa Indonesia. Setelah selesai menjalani proses editorial, artikel-artikel tersebut kemudian dialihbahasakan ke bahasa Inggris. Artikel-artikel dengan bahasa Indonesia masih tetap kami pertahankan dan diterbitkan bersamaan dengan versi Bahasa Inggris dengan harapan menambah kenyamanan bagi sebagian besar pembaca Berkala.</p> Berkala Arkeologi Copyright (c) 2020 Berkala Arkeologi Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Majapahit and the Contemporary Kingdoms: Interactions and Views <p>This study discusses the interactions between Majapahit and other kingdoms from a contemporary time in Nusantara, Southeast Asia, India, and China and vice versa. The aim is to formulate the interaction between Majapahit and contemporary kingdoms and vice versa based on existing data. This is an ancient historical study that was conducted in three stages, namely: collecting data contained in written sources such as inscriptions, literary works, and Chinese Chronicles, and archaeological data. The second stage was a data analysis by linking data from written sources with other data, to look for elements that support each other, and always refer to the phenomenon of the study framework. The third stage included an interpretation to gain conclusions. According to the data analysis by examining Majapahit's contemporary regions and kingdoms, it turned out that the kingdom applied the basic concept of <em>Tri Angga</em> which refers to the macrocosm concept of <em>Tri Loka</em>. Majapahit's relationship with India is not as dynamic as that of China, instead, there is a view that India is religiously no longer a reference to Hinduism and Buddhism.</p> Agus Aris Munandar Copyright (c) 2020 Berkala Arkeologi Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Cave Settlement Potential of Caves and Rock Shelters in Aceh Besar Regency <p>The evidence of prehistoric life in Aceh has been proven by the results of archeological research conducted by the North Sumatra Archaeological Institute. Until now, the research only focuses on the eastern coast and the central mountains of Aceh. The western coast of Aceh, which also has the potential to provide information, has never been studied. The western coast of Aceh is an area that has a wide karst landscape with many caves that might be used as a settlement in the past. One method used to predict such caves included a topographic map, a geological map, and a digital elevation model (DEM). The inventory results of caves on the western coast of Aceh were also used as preliminary data to obtain the distribution of caves and rock shelters. In this study, the area surveyed was Aceh Besar Regency. Three parameters of inhabited caves, i.e. morphology and genesis, environment, and archaeological content, were used to describe the potential of each cave. Of eleven caves and rock shelters, three caves are qualified as the past settlement and potential for further research, four caves are qualified as the past settlement but not potential for further research, and four caves are neither qualified as a settlement nor potential for further research.</p> Taufiqurrahman Setiawan Copyright (c) 2020 Berkala Arkeologi Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0700 The Reliefs of Ramayana and Kṛṣṇa Story at Lara Jonggrang Temple and Reign Shift of The Ancient Mataram in 9th Century AD <p>Lara Jonggrang is one of the temples in Java that attracts several researchers from various disciplines. The abundance of discussion about this temple does not necessarily close the possibility of new discussion or merely reinterpreting old problems through new approaches. One of the aims of this study is to reopen the old discourse about Lara Jonggrang Temple which is considered to have reached the final stage through research questions, What is the relation between the reliefs of the Rāmāyana story and the Kṛṣṇa story in Lara Jonggrang Temple and the transfer of power in the Ancient Mataram in 9<sup>th</sup> Century AD? Through a descriptive-analytical method, this study found several things that have been considered final have still kept a few surprises from new interpretations. Through this article, it is shown that Rakai Pikatan and Rakai Kayuwangi play a role as a milestone for the construction, inauguration, and carving of story reliefs in Lara Jonggrang Temple. In addition, the existence of the two reliefs is also related to the process of transfer of power in the Ancient Mataram in 9<sup>th</sup> Century AD.</p> Andri Restiyadi Copyright (c) 2020 Berkala Arkeologi Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0700 The Depiction of Snake Ornament on Ganesha Statue in the Collection of Prambanan Temple Museum, Yogyakarta <p>Ganesha is the best-known deity after Trimurti in the Hindu pantheon. He is worshipped as the lord of beginnings and as the lord of removing obstacles. He is sculpted in various depictions. One of them, collected by the Prambanan Temple Museum, Yogyakarta, shows a snake and a mouse as his vahana (mount/vehicle). This image has never been found anywhere else. Therefore, this study was aimed to find out the mythological story behind that depiction and to investigate the past people’s understanding of it. This descriptive study employed an iconographic analysis to analyze the collected data. The analysis results indicate that Ganesha is revered as the protector of crop yield (the harvest deity).</p> Ashar Murdihastomo Copyright (c) 2020 Berkala Arkeologi Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Tracking the Locations of Hindu - Buddhist Archaeological Remains in Magelang Region Based on ROD 1914 and GIS Approach <p>Java was once the center of Hindu and Buddhist culture around the 4th until the 15th century AD. The number of archaeological remains from this period is infinite, both monumental remains such as temples and petirtaan (water shrines/ temple), and other remains such as yoni, linga, and statues. These remains are registered systematically by the Dutch East Indies government through its Archaeological Service (Oudheidkundig Dienst). unfortunately, most of them cannot be identified for their exact present locations. Some of the remains were later discovered unexpectedly at the time of construction or agricultural work activities. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the locations of archaeological remains as reported by the Dutch Archaeological Service in the region of Magelang using the Geographic Information System (GIS) approach. This study suggests that, during the period of the Dutch East Indies, Magelang region has a very high density of Hindu-Buddhist archaeological remains. The result of this study can be used for further surveys, re-inventory, as well as protection and preservation efforts.</p> Ari Mukti Wardoyo Adi Copyright (c) 2020 Berkala Arkeologi Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Makara of Adan-Adan Temple: The Art Style During The Kaḍiri Period <p>This paper discusses the <em>makara</em> found at Adan-Adan Temple, Kediri. So far, it is the largest <em>makara</em> in Indonesia and, in terms of iconography, has distinctive features. The data was collected through detailed observations both directly in the field or through photographs. This study employed a comparative analysis, i.e. comparing the collected data to the <em>makaras</em> from different periods (the Ancient Matarām, the Srīwijaya, and the Siŋhasāri). From these comparisons, it is known that the makara at Adan-Adan Temple has special characteristics, i.e. different depictions between the makara on the left and the right as can be seen from the figure of a mythical creature inside the <em>makara’s</em> mouth, from the sculpture on the front of the <em>makara</em>, and on the back of the <em>makara</em>. This particularity may be included as an art style of the Kaḍiri period (the transitional period of from Ancient Matarām to Siŋhasāri).</p> Sukawati Susetyo Copyright (c) 2020 Berkala Arkeologi Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Instructional Media in the XV Century (A Case Study of Widodaren, Gerba, and Pasrujambe Inscriptions) <p>This study was aimed at analyzing and interpreting the instructional media existing in the classical period of the Hindu - Buddhist kingdoms. The object of the study was inscriptions found on the Semeru Slope, inclduing Widodaren, Pasrujambe, and Gerba. This study employed a qualitative method with an archeological-historical framework. The data was collected through a literature review and in-situ research of the inscriptions. The collected data was analyzed using a structural analysis in the forms of transliteration of the contents and meaning written at the inscriptions. The study found that there is evidence of the use of instructional media in teaching process. This finding is also supported by the Nāgarakṛtâgama and Bujaņga Manik manuscripts which narrate educational and moral values as one of the characteristics of instructional media. In addition, the instructional media serve as a tool support the teaching and learning process at that time.</p> Rakai Hino Galeswangi Copyright (c) 2020 Berkala Arkeologi Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0700 Back Cover Volume 40 No. 1 May 2020 <p>Back Cover Volume 40 No. 1 May 2020</p> Berkala Arkeologi Copyright (c) 2020 Berkala Arkeologi Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0700