In Editorial

The editorial process for our next edition is in full swing. Articles below are under our considerations, and undergoing editorial processes. Author names are omitted from this list due to the nature of our double blind peer review process.

Volume 41/ 2021

CONTESTED LEGITIMACIES: BOROBUDUR IN AND OUT OF JAVA DURING COLONIAL PERIOD

The postcolonial heritage “Borobudur” is arguably constructed from stories of ancient grandeur, regrettable loss, and modern revival, infused with a lingered colonial aesthetics. This narrative has its own history. In this paper, I aim to show the ways in which Javanese elites, colonial authorities, and neighbouring states had been contesting each other’s legitimacies for stewardship and ownership of Borobudur within their own differing purposes, from the late 18th to early 20th centuries. I frame the discussion by using the works of Michel Foucault on rationality and regimes of truth in tandem with another prism of investigation: “the social life of thing” by Arjun Appadurai. It shows that, while Javanese had had their own views of the ruin, they were disregarded and subsequently eclipsed by the narratives of decline, abandonment, and colonial duty produced by various figures and institutions.

Keywords: Borobudur, antiquity, archaeology, collecting practice, knowledge production

FUNGSI ALAT BATU DARI SITUS GUA ARCA, PULAU KANGEAN, JAWA TIMUR

Artikel ini membahas mengenai fungsi alat batu dari Situs Gua Arca, Pulau Kangean, Madura, Jawa Timur. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan fungsi dari alat batu melalui analisis tipe alat dan jejak pakai pada alat batu yang kemudian dibandingkan dengan hasil eksperimen para ahli. Pengetahuan mengenai fungsi diawali dengan mengklasifikasikan alat batu ke dalam tipe-tipe tertentu berdasarkan atribut tajaman yang meliputi letak tajaman dan sudut tajaman. Selanjutnya, dilakukan pemilahan alat yang memiliki indikasi jejak pemakaian yang berjumlah 142 alat. Berdasarkan pemilahan alat pakai yang dilakukan, dapat diketahui 10 alat memiliki jejak-jejak yang mengindikasikan pemakaian alat. Selanjutnya,dilakukan analisis jejak pakai pada 10 alat tersebut dengan mengamati dan merekam bentuk-bentuk jejak pakai, keletakan, dan distribusinya pada tajaman alat. Hasil analisis tipe alat dan jejak pakai selanjutnya dibandingkan dengan eksperimen para ahli yang menjelaskan keterkaitan antara jejak pakai dengan aktivitas penggunaan alat dan material yang dikerjakan. Kedekatan antara bentuk-bentuk jejak pakai hasil eksperimen para ahli dengan jejak pakai alat batu dari Situs Gua Arca digunakan untuk memperkirakan fungsi dari alat batu. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan, diperkirakan alat batu di Situs Gua Arca digunakan untuk aktivitas pengerjaan kayu dan pengolahan bahan makanan.

Keywords: Alat batu, jejak pakai, fungsi, eksperimen, Gua Arca

BEJANA BATU BERBENTUK LEMBU DI DESA SELO BANTENG SITUBONDO: KAJIAN MAKNA DAN FUNGSI

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji makna serta fungsi dari bejana batu berbentuk palung dengan hiasan seekor lembu. Bejana batu ini ditemukan di Situs Batu Banteng yang berada di Desa Selobanteng Kecamatan Banyuglugur Kabupaten Situbondo, Jawa Timur. Objek kajian dalam penelitian ini adalah palung berbentuk lembu yang memiliki sebaris tulisan dengan angka 1325 saka (1403 M). Metode penelitian adalah kualitatif dengan kajian studi arkeologi-sejarah. Adapun tahapan penelitian mengikuti alur dan telaah penelitian arkeologi, yaitu (1) pengumpulan data, (2) deskripsi data, (3) analisis data, dan (4) interpretasi data. Hasil penelitian menyatakan fungsi bejana palung ‘Batu Banteng’ digunakan sebagai tempat menampung air sekaligus wadah bertransformasi, sehingga air dianggap suci oleh masyarakat pendukungnya. Fungsi air (amerta) yang ada dalam palung ‘Batu Banteng’ tersebut digunakan sebagai sarana penyembuhan atau obat yang mujarab bagi orang sakit (baik sakit lahiriah maupun batiniah). Temuan ini diharapkan dapat berguna untuk penelitian lanjutan lainnya.

Keywords: Bejana; Lembu; Selo Banteng; Makna dan Fungsi

IRON INDUSTRY AND BANJAR WAR ON THE UPPER OF THE BARITO WATERSHED, NORTH BARITO, CENTRAL KALIMANTAN

Archaeological research in the upstream of the Barito watershed in 2017-2019 has identified 19 sites of iron ore smelting which the local community calls buren. The radiocarbon dating results that the sites were in 16-19 century, with a peak in 19th century. This article aims to explain the relationship between the peak of the iron industry and the Banjar War on the upper of the Barito watershed. This research is a qualitative with inductive reasoning. The approach used is historical archeology. The literature study show that the types of weapons used in the Barito War have similarities with the legacy weapons belonging to the Barito upstream community, several locations mentioned in the Barito War have buren sites with dates close to the Banjar War. The factory of local and European weapons on the banks of the Negara River (a tributary of the Barito River) obtain raw iron from buren in Barito upstream. The Barito War had impact on changing locations of the buren from on the banks of the main river to the tributaries.

Keywords: Barito upstream, Barito War, iron industry, weapon

INDONESIA CHINESE MAJOR SHOPHOUSE CONSERVATION OF PASAR BARU JAKARTA

Bangunan lama langgam Tionghoa yang dijadikan cagar budaya di Jakarta biasanya merupakan peninggalan opsir Tionghoa dan memiliki gaya Tiongkok Selatan atau campuran dengan gaya indische empire serta dalam bentuk landhuis. Hal berbeda ditemukan di Pasar Baru Jakarta, terdapat bangunan bergaya Tiongkok Selatan berupa rumah toko yang merupakan peninggalan opsir Tionghoa dengan jabatan tertinggi dalam masyarakat Tionghoa yaitu Mayor Tio Tek Ho. Lalu apa ciri khas dan potensi dari bangunan peninggalan Mayor Tio Tek Ho ini sebagai bangunan cagar budaya untuk direvitalisasi? Dan bagaimana persepsi masyarakat terhadap pelestarian bangunan peninggalan Mayor Tio Tek Ho? Untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut maka dilakukan penelitian. Penelitian ini berupa penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan etnohistori, sebuah pendekatan yang menjelaskan mengenai tinggalan arkeologis melalui pengamatan pada perilaku manusia yang masih berlaku sekarang dan didasarkan pada catatan-catatan lama yang memuat tentang perilaku manusia dalam masyarakat tertentu dan waktu tertentu. Tujuan dilakukannya penelitian ini yaitu mengidentifikasi bangunan langgam Tionghoa peninggalan opsir Tionghoa sebagai bagian dari budaya dan sejarah lokal, mengetahui persepsi masyarakat terhadap pelestarian bangunan lama peninggalan opsir Tionghoa dan memberikan masukan atau rekomendasi bagi pemerintah Kota Jakarta mengenai pengembangan potensi destinasi wisata dengan pelestarian bangunan lama.

Keywords: Bangunan Langgam Tionghoa, Kota Madiun, Pelestarian, Undang Undang Cagar Budaya

UNDERRATED NATIONAL ASSETS: THE FUTURE OF UNDERWATER CULTURAL HERITAGE IN INDONESIA

As a country that lies strategically at the maritime trade route, Indonesia has many underwater cultural remains which spread across its archipelago. The potential of this underwater cultural heritage has been recognized by experts for national identity purpose and encouraging the socio-economic development for local people. Furthermore, in political agenda, underwater cultural heritage is considered as important national assets for national development. However, in reality, salvaging and looting of underwater cultural heritage still frequently occur in Indonesia. Weak supervision and overlapping regulations are thought to be the main problems in the preservation of underwater cultural heritage in Indonesia. Based on these problems, this paper aims to find alternative solutions in the management of underwater cultural heritage in Indonesia. This study used a qualitative method by interviewing stakeholders from the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, and the Indonesian Archaeological Expert Association. The results of this study discuss about legislation issues and urgency to create integrative underwater cultural heritage management model.

Keywords: Underwater cultural heritage; heritage management; BMKT; Underwater archaeology; shipwreck

PEMANGKASAN PADA TULANG BINATANG DI FORMASI KABUH DI SITUS SANGIRAN

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui teknologi artefak tulang oleh Homo erectus pada Formasi Kabuh di Situs Sangiran. Sejauh ini, penelitian belum memberikan hasil yang meyakinkan. Hal tersebut disebabkan oleh proses transformasi yang menyebabkan kerusakan pada spesimen tulang. Melalui pendekatan zooarkeologi dan penerapan analisis tafonomi, analisis teknologi alat tulang dan analisis jejak pakai. Dari 636 sampel tulang binatang, terdapat 21 spesimen yang diidentifaksi secara makroskopis memiliki jejak modifikasi oleh manusia berupa pembuatan alat tulang dan pengambilan sumsum. Hasil analisis teknologi pada artefak tulang menunjukkan bahwa Homo erectus telah melakukan pembelahan tulang dengan terlebih dahulu memangkas tulang panjang binatang, kemudian dilakukan pemangkasan menyerong pada salah satu lateral tulang dan pada kedua lateral tulang. Berikutnya adalah pemangkasan langsung pada bagian diaphysis tulang utuh dengan cara pemangkasan menyerong.

Keywords: Situs Sangiran, Formasi Kabuh, Tulang Binatang, Pemangkasan

EVERATOUR: CONCEPT OF DEVELOPING SANGIRAN EARLY MAN SITE IN THE FUTURE

Sangiran Early Man Site has significant values for the world. Thus, development is carried out in the area. Unfortunately, the visitor number is uneven and shows the tendency of decreasing. Therefore, an idea that can maximize the potential of Sangiran as well as preserve it is needed. Everatour as a futuristic idea formed by an inductive method is designed to answer this problem. This article aims to explain the strategy of developing Sangiran Early Man Site and deliver idea about a concept of developing Sangiran Early Man Site. Data used in this article both quantitative and qualitative, with the output is a conceptual idea about concept of developing the site. The result showed, Everatour is a concept that is suitable with the physical and cultural condition of Sangiran Early Man Site, and hopefully, if the idea is implemented it will have positive impacts on the site and the local community.

Keywords: Sangiran; Museum; Futuristic; Tour

PIYAGĔM AND POWER: SULTANATE OF BANTEN AND PALEMBANG POLITICAL APPROACH TO LAMPUNGNESE SOCIETY (XVII-XIX AD)

Entering the Islamic era, Lampung region was controlled by two kingdoms, namely the Sultanates of Palembang and Banten. Evidence of these two kingdoms is found in the inscriptions. The inscriptions issued by the Palembang Sultanate were known as "piyagĕm", while the inscriptions issued by the Sultanate of Banten were referred to as "dalung". This study tries to raise the problem of the political approaches used by the two kingdoms in the inscriptions issued. The purpose of this research is to reconstruct the history of Lampung's ruler over these two kingdoms through inscription data. In answering these problems, a descriptive archaeological method was applied in this study. It can be seen that the Palembang Sultanate was more oriented towards a “hard power” approach, while the Banten Sultanate was oriented towards a combination of “hard power” and “soft power”.

Keywords: Banten, Dalung, Lampung, Palembang, Piyagĕm

DISSECTING GENDER ROLES AND WOMEN DOMESTICATION IN PREHISTORY: BIOARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDY FROM GILIMANUK SITES

Women domestication can be defined as process of confining women to the domestic spheres. Gender roles and division of labour by sex become key components to understand this process among society in the past. This article aims to dissect gender roles and labour division by sex among prehistoric community in Gilimanuk sites in order to deconstruct myth about women domestication. This research were conducted using qualitative methods, with bioarchaeological framework and gender discourse analysis. Result show that existence of non-pathological condition can give difference narrative about gender roles, rather than only view this phenomenon on labelled material culture. Result also show that Gilimanuk society do not have specific gender roles both in physical activity and material cultures. Which indicate that women domestication might not happen or started during this period.

Keywords: bioarchaeology; gender roles; women domestication ; entheseal change

THE FLOWERS AND ANIMALS ORNAMENT IN ARCA SIWA NATIONAL MUSEUM COLLECTION

Shiva is one of the highest gods in Hinduism along with Lord Brahma and Lord Vishnu. The three of them are often referred to as Trimurti and have their respective duties, namely creation by Lord Brahma, preserver by Lord Vishnu, and destroyer by Lord Shiva. Worship of Lord Vishnu is often found in various regions as evidenced by some of his remains in the form of therianthropic (phallus) and anthropomorphic (human body statues). Lord Shiva in his anthropomorphic form has many depictions, both standing, sitting cross-legged, or sitting on his vehicle. One of the most interesting depictions found at the National Museum is the depiction of Lord Shiva standing in a standing position with flowers on the upper right and animals on the upper left. The uniqueness of this depiction raises a question, how is the relationship between the two ornaments and Lord Shiva? The purpose of raising this question is to find out the meaning of the depiction of the two ornaments. To answer this question, a series of methods began with data collection, continued with description and analysis, and ended with explanation and interpretation. The results obtained indicate that the padma flower and a goose is a represent of the religion activities in the Shiva Siddhanta sect.

Keywords: Mahadeva; Shiva Siddhanta; Padma Flower; Hamsa

APPLICATION OF GEOELECTRIC FOR MEGALITHIC SITES IDENTIFICATION IN PEKAUMAN VILLAGE, BONDOWOSO REGENCY

This article explains the use of the geoelectrical method in prospecting buried artifacts underneath the fields nearby heritage area of Pekauman. By utilizing a geoelectrical device, we can assume – based on the visual image and different color, that there was an artificial stone laid beneath the land. It proved that the Geoelectric device has detected the image of the artificial shape of the structure beneath surface. Otherwise, obtained information from this method is very important in giving preliminary data, particularly defining the coordinate number of locations before excavation. Excavation projects will cost less money than those who have no preliminary information. This preliminary data will guide the landowners when they are going to digging the foundation or any underground structure, to avoid demolition of underneath cultural heritage objects.

Keywords: Geoelectric; Site; Megalitic; Bondowoso