In Editorial

The editorial process for our next edition is in full swing. Articles below are under our considerations, and undergoing editorial processes. Author names are omitted from this list due to the nature of our double blind peer review process.

Volume 40, November 2020

IT’S TIME TO LOOK AT THE WEST: A NEW INTERPRETATION ON HOMO ERECTUS FINDINGS DISTRIBUTION OF JAVA

Paleontological data indicates that the beginning of Java Island’s occupation occurred at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary, around 2.4 Ma. However, the oldest Homo erectus fossil was found in Sangiran, around 1.5 Ma. Recently, Pleistocene sites were discovered from the western Java which theoretically emerged earlier than the eastern part, e.g. Rancah, Semedo, and Bumiayu. This paper will describe the significance of archeological, paleontological, and especially paleoanthropological data from the new sites, and their implications to the future Quaternary prehistory research strategies determination. Data collection methods include literature study and surveys, while data analysis carried out on the geological, archeological, paleontological, and paleoanthropological data. The result shows the distribution of Homo erectus is extended to the western part of Java, between 1.8-1.7 Ma, older than the oldest Homo erectus of Sangiran. A new window of the human arrival on this island is identified. So, it is time to look at the west, and intensive research should be carried out to those areas.

Keywords: Distribution; Homo erectus; Java; Early Pleistocene; Rancah; Semedo; Bumiayu

RECONSTRUCTION OF STONE CARVED INSCRIPTION USING PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIC

This research discusses and tests photogrammetry techniques to determine the depth of the carvings from some stone inscriptions so that reconstruction can be carried out in order to clarify the already worn or weathered inscriptions. With this type of reconstruction, we are hoping that those kinds of etchings can ultimately be read. Inscriptions are the backbone of ancient Indonesian historical writings. Unfortunately the significance of many inscriptions can not yet be used optimally since many inscriptions are found in a state of excessive wear, and this due both to natural as well as human factors. To this day, Photogrammetry techniques have not been widely used by Indonesian researchers in order to help analyze existing cultural heritage objects, especially stone inscriptions. Reviewing results from previous photogrammetric techniques that have been carried out, this research paper also presents documents from current experiments, especially those directly related to the inscriptions.

Keywords: Reconstruction; Inscription; Photogrammetry; Documentation

ISLAMIC TRADITION IN ULU INSCRIPTION AND MANUSCRIPT AT PASEMAH AREA, SOUTH SUMATRA, INDONESIA

Ulu script were developed in the Southern Sumatra region, the word "ulu" means it comes from the upstream of a river or higher land. Inscriptions and manuscripts using ulu script are found in many communities in the Pasemah region. The relation between ulu's inscription and manuscript to Islam are very dominant in terms of their decorations. Inscriptions and manuscripts that were successfully identified are about farming, medicine, and mantras (read: prayers). In relation to farming, for example, Islamic astrology was being use as a guide in planting certain types of plants. Religion (belief) that was embraced by the Pasemah community since prehistoric times until now, has created an identity that is different. The Islamic tradition which was written in ulu's manuscript or inscriptions are also can be seen in their people's views. In this case, there are three groups of people's views regarding ulu's, which are: profane, semi-sacred, and sacred.

Keywords: Ulu script; inscriptions; manuscripts; Islamic tradition

THE TOPONYMY OF THE VILLAGES IN AMBON ISLAND: A HISTORICAL-ARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDY

Many previous researchers have conducted studies about Ambon toponymy. However, previous studies have not used the historical-archaeological approach. The use of this approach are enabling researchers to reveal the cross-cultural interactions in a specific locus. Taking the Island of Ambon as a locus, the researchers are aiming not only to find the origin of the village names, but also their cultural intersection in Leihitu and Leitimor Peninsula. Three steps were conducted by the researchers to collect and analyse data. Firstly, identification and tabulation of the village names mentioned by the Hikayat Tanah Hitu (The Epic of Hitu Land) and three ancient cartographies. Secondly, identification of various archaeological remains located in the villages. Finally, the researchers analysed the origin of village names by searching the word-meaning; finding the present location; and describing the role of the contemporary culture in the past. There were 12 villages with 22 archaeological remains. All related communities have the archaeological remains which could explain the local dynamics, however there are only ten villages which the meaning of their names could be identified.

Keywords: toponymy; cultural identity; Leihitu; Leitimor; etymology

SERPENT SCULPTURE IN TELAGA BATU INSCRIPTION: AN INTERPRETATION BASED ON PIERCE’S SEMIOTIC APPROACH

Sriwijaya is a kingdom in southern Sumatra that developed between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. Reference sources for reconstructing the cultural history of this united state can be found in archaeological remains and written sources. The inscriptions become archaeological remains as well as written sources that can reconstruct Sriwijaya's cultural history. Several Sriwijaya inscriptions that can be found until now, namely the Telaga Batu Inscription, Talang Tuo, Kedukan Bukit, Kota Kapur, Pasemah Palas, Karang Brahi, Bungkuk and others. The Telaga Batu inscription is different from other inscriptions because it is the only one that has an ornament in the form of a living creature and its contents are the longest among the others. The ornaments found on the Telaga Batu Inscription are in the form of a seven-headed snake. This study attempts to answer the meaning of the seven-headed snake figure with Pierce's triadic semiotic method. The meaning can reconstruct the concept behind the making of a seven-headed snake figure and the reasons why it is necessary to draw the figure depicted on the Telaga Batu Inscription. In answering these questions a series of stages of archaeological research are used, including data collection, data analysis and interpretation. Data collection was carried out through a literature study on the description of the form and contents of the Telaga Batu Inscription. Data analysis was carried out through the interpretation of aspects that formed the meaning of the snake figure in Telaga Batu Inscription, based on the description that had been done. The data is then interpreted through postulates that are assumed to be true based on the arguments that are considered the most powerful. The interpretations of this study are also compared with the interpretations of previous researchers. The snake figure in the Telaga Batu Inscription can eventually be interpreted as a manifestation of the Datu's protector and also the form of the Datu as a Buddha.

Keywords: Buddha; Datu; Dewaraja; Mucalinda; Sriwijaya

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF KUTA BATAGUH IN KAPUAS, CENTRAL KALIMANTAN

Kuta Bataguh administratively is located in the districts of Bataguh and Kapuas Timur, Kapuas Regency, Central Kalimantan. The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the characteristics of Kuta Bataguh. This research is descriptive explanative with inductive reasoning. Data collection uses a system of surveys, excavations, interviews, and literature study. The analysis used is environmental analysis, stratigraphic analysis, artifactual analysis, spatial analysis, and absolute dating analysis. Survey (surface and air) and excavation activities are carried out inside and outside the fort, in the both direction downstream and upstream of the Karinyau River (which flows through the site). Interview activities were carried out with traditional mantir of Bataguh district and the local community to obtain information about the existence of kuta and the variety of objects that had been found. The results of the study illustrate that the characteristics of Kuta Bataguh are precisely a large permanent residence that is cleaved by a river. The center of the oval-shaped dwelling, had been given a perimeter fence of ironwood logs completed by a canal with a width of about 5 meters, and located in the highest area (higher than the surrounding environment). The bank of the Karinyau River (outside the canal) became a settlement of the community supporting Kuta, both downstream and upstream. The fortified dwelling of Kuta Bataguh was the leader residence of Ngaju community group (as the center of power). By referring to the pattern, function and extent of this settlement, it can be assumed that the local authorities in Bataguh in their socio-political organization are on par with the early state.

Keywords: Characteristics; fortified settlement; Kuta Bataguh; Central Kalimantan

THE STONE ARTEFACT OF EARLY-MIDDLE HOLOCENE AT LEANG BATTI: FROM THE PAINTING ART TO TECHNO-COMPLEX OF TOALEAN

Intensive research in prehistoric caves in South Sulawesi has shown us the cognitive capability of Sulawesi inhabitants that might not be possessed by other explorers in Wallacea. At the Late Pleistocene, the skill shown was related to the art of painting, but during the Holocene time, it was the ability to modify the stone tools known as the techno-complex of Toalean. However, a view of the cultural transition period is still rarely reported. The Leang Batti site is one of the Early-Middle Holocene occupation sites that can fill the void through the study of stone artifact technology. The results showed that in the Early Holocene, the dominant technology was large flakes without modification. The painting skills did fade at that time. In the Middle Holocene phase, technology began to change because the influence of Toalean began to enter the basic concept of making tools, but not too strong.

Keywords: Leang Batti; Stone Artifact; technology; Early-middle Holocene; Toalean

PERMASALAHAN DALAM PEMBACAAN INSKRIPSI KUADRAT (ABAD XI-XII MASEHI) DI INDONESIA

Tulisan kuadrat ditemukan pada tiga pulau di Indonesia, dengan beragam gaya berdasarkan konteks keberadaannya. Bentuknya yang unik telah menimbulkan permasalahan dalam proses penelitiannya, yaitu mengenai identifikasi bentuk aksara, kata dan kalimat, serta makna dari muatan isinya. Penelitian ini menggunakan jenis penelitian kualitatif, mengarah pada deskriptif-analisis dan digunakannya tipe eksplanatif untuk menjelaskan faktor-faktor di balik terjadinya gejala permasalahan tersebut dengan penerapan teori Linguistik Struktural serta Strukturalisme Lévi Strauss. Hasil penelitian ini, inskripsi kuadrat berdasarkan struktur isinya, terdiri: (1) tentang pernyataan resmi dari pejabat tinggi kerajaan, (2) tentang kata-kata dan angka berbentuk tunggal atau kalimat sebagai tanda untuk media berkomunikasi. Permasalahan pada faktor eksternal berkaitan kualitas objek. Solusinya dibutuhkan konservasi dan dokumentasi terhadap objek. Faktor internal berkaitan kemampuan peneliti dalam mengidentifikasi objek. Solusinya memperkuat studi linguistik struktural dan menerapkan paradigma yang tepat.

Keywords: Inskripsi Kuadrat; Varian; Isi; Permasalahan; Solusi

MOTIVATION AND PERCEPTION OF VISITORS TOWARDS TOURISM ATTRIBUTE IN SANGIRAN ANCIENT MAN MUSEUM, KRIKILAN CLUSTER

One of Indonesia’s tourist destinations which included in the Heritage Tourism category is Sangiran Ancient Man Site. As a tourist destination, The Sangiran Ancient Man Museum, Krikilan Cluster and four other museums, needs a concern to some important elements in the development and management of tourism destinations such as destination attributes which are then often linked to the motivation and perceptions of tourists, which related to tourist satisfaction of the destination. This article provides information on visitors’ motivations and perceptions of the Museum of Early Man, Krikilan Cluster based on quantitative research conducted on 533 participants. The results are expected to contribute to the museum in order to support its maintenance, management, and development to be a leading tourist destination.

Keywords: motivation; perception; Museum Sangiran; tourist destination

LOCAL WISDOM: PRESERVATION EFFORT TO IMOGIRI BURIAL SITE AS COMMUNITY LIFE SOURCE

Imogiri burial site is a privileged site the life in Imogiri began. This site has values, as it provides benefits for the locals. This research is done to know the value of Imogiri grave site, the benefits of the site provides to the local and the preservation efforts of the community to the site. This research aims to bring out the role of society to their cultural heritage that has been less attention. The research begins with surveys, observations, and interviews to collect data. The literature study was conducted to produce explanations related to Imogiri's tomb history, Javanese beliefs, and cultural heritage preservation theories. Furthermore, identification of the value of Imogiri burial site and analysis on the benefits of Imogiri burial site and the preservation efforts of the local community of the site were accomplished. The result of this study demonstrates that local wisdom has been effective effort to preserve Imogiri's burial site as a community life source.

Keywords: Imogiri; burial; site; preservation; local wisdom

CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE PUNJULHARJO BOAT IN REMBANG, CENTRAL JAVA

The Punjulharjo boat is a wooden watercraft, built in the traditional Southeast Asian boatbuilding technique called lashed-lug tradition. It was found in 2008, excavated, and later was dismantled for a lengthy conservation process. At the beginning of 2018, the hull was reassembled to be displayed for the public. The boat has been listed as heritage site under the Decree of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism No. 57/2010. This cultural heritage management plan outlines the management strategy for the boat that describes the condition of the boat remains, assess the significance of the site, and identify threats that might reduce the value of the site. It later considers the legislative context of heritage protection in Indonesia and finally proposes management objectives that need to be implemented to protect and preserve the site.

Keywords: Punjulharjo; boat; management; maritime; semi-open museum

GUA BATU: HUNIAN PRASEJARAH DI PEGUNUNGAN MERATUS BAGIAN TENGGARA

Gua Batu is an archaeological site found in the southeast Meratus Mountain, in Kotabaru Regency. Research in this area found new finding that shows traces of human activites. This article discusses how human habitation in Gua Batu. The data for this research was the result from archaeological excavation in Gua Batu in 2018. Archaeological analysis carried out is classification, morphology analysis, space and time anaylsis. This research result shows that Gua Batu were prehistoric dwelling from 4,300 BC. Exploitation of natur resources is seen in the use of shellfish and animals around it as one of the energy sources.

Keywords: Gua Batu; prehistory; lithic; shellfish; Meratus; Kotabaru

PENGARUH PERUBAHAN LINGKUNGAN TERHADAP PROSES BUDAYA DI CEKUNGAN WONOSARI

Wonosari Basin is part of the karst mountains in southern Java which has various archeological remains from the Prehistoric period, the Classical period, to the Islamic - Colonial period. The long time period and its archeological remains illustrate the process of cultural change in the Wonosari Basin. Research need to be carried out to illustrate how the cultural process occurs and what factors influence its changing. The cultural process approach emphasizes the study of synchronic and diachronic in order to illustrate how the process of cultural evolution and the factors that influence its changing. Through this approach, it was obtained that the environment has dominant impact on the cultural process in the Wonosari Basin, which was strengthened by changing human settlement patterns. Originally humans living in caves in the karst mountains move to the Wonosari Basin because its environtment provides flat area and surface water resources easily to access. The pattern of community settlements has changed due to reduced water discharge in the Wonosari Basin. Changes in the environment also have an impact on changing the system of subsistence, occupational patterns, and technological developments, the implication of which is the increasing complexity of the people in the area. Research conducted shows that the environment has a significant significant role in the cultural process of a region.

Keywords: Gunung Sewu; Wonosari Basin; Culture Process