In Editorial

The editorial process for our next edition is in full swing. Articles below are under our considerations, and undergoing editorial processes. Author names are omitted from this list due to the nature of our double blind peer review process.

Volume 41/ 2021

UNDERRATED NATIONAL ASSETS: THE FUTURE OF UNDERWATER CULTURAL HERITAGE IN INDONESIA

As a country that lies strategically at the maritime trade route, Indonesia has many underwater cultural remains which spread across its archipelago. The potential of this underwater cultural heritage has been recognized by experts for national identity purpose and encouraging the socio-economic development for local people. Furthermore, in political agenda, underwater cultural heritage is considered as important national assets for national development. However, in reality, salvaging and looting of underwater cultural heritage still frequently occur in Indonesia. Weak supervision and overlapping regulations are thought to be the main problems in the preservation of underwater cultural heritage in Indonesia. Based on these problems, this paper aims to find alternative solutions in the management of underwater cultural heritage in Indonesia. This study used a qualitative method by interviewing stakeholders from the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, and the Indonesian Archaeological Expert Association. The results of this study discuss about legislation issues and urgency to create integrative underwater cultural heritage management model.

Keywords: Underwater cultural heritage; heritage management; BMKT; Underwater archaeology; shipwreck

PEMANGKASAN PADA TULANG BINATANG DI FORMASI KABUH DI SITUS SANGIRAN

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui teknologi artefak tulang oleh Homo erectus pada Formasi Kabuh di Situs Sangiran. Sejauh ini, penelitian belum memberikan hasil yang meyakinkan. Hal tersebut disebabkan oleh proses transformasi yang menyebabkan kerusakan pada spesimen tulang. Melalui pendekatan zooarkeologi dan penerapan analisis tafonomi, analisis teknologi alat tulang dan analisis jejak pakai. Dari 636 sampel tulang binatang, terdapat 21 spesimen yang diidentifaksi secara makroskopis memiliki jejak modifikasi oleh manusia berupa pembuatan alat tulang dan pengambilan sumsum. Hasil analisis teknologi pada artefak tulang menunjukkan bahwa Homo erectus telah melakukan pembelahan tulang dengan terlebih dahulu memangkas tulang panjang binatang, kemudian dilakukan pemangkasan menyerong pada salah satu lateral tulang dan pada kedua lateral tulang. Berikutnya adalah pemangkasan langsung pada bagian diaphysis tulang utuh dengan cara pemangkasan menyerong.

Keywords: Situs Sangiran, Formasi Kabuh, Tulang Binatang, Pemangkasan

EVERATOUR: CONCEPT OF DEVELOPING SANGIRAN EARLY MAN SITE IN THE FUTURE

Sangiran Early Man Site has significant values for the world. Thus, development is carried out in the area. Unfortunately, the visitor number is uneven and shows the tendency of decreasing. Therefore, an idea that can maximize the potential of Sangiran as well as preserve it is needed. Everatour as a futuristic idea formed by an inductive method is designed to answer this problem. This article aims to explain the strategy of developing Sangiran Early Man Site and deliver idea about a concept of developing Sangiran Early Man Site. Data used in this article both quantitative and qualitative, with the output is a conceptual idea about concept of developing the site. The result showed, Everatour is a concept that is suitable with the physical and cultural condition of Sangiran Early Man Site, and hopefully, if the idea is implemented it will have positive impacts on the site and the local community.

Keywords: Sangiran; Museum; Futuristic; Tour

PIYAGĔM AND POWER: SULTANATE OF BANTEN AND PALEMBANG POLITICAL APPROACH TO LAMPUNGNESE SOCIETY (XVII-XIX AD)

Entering the Islamic era, Lampung region was controlled by two kingdoms, namely the Sultanates of Palembang and Banten. Evidence of these two kingdoms is found in the inscriptions. The inscriptions issued by the Palembang Sultanate were known as "piyagĕm", while the inscriptions issued by the Sultanate of Banten were referred to as "dalung". This study tries to raise the problem of the political approaches used by the two kingdoms in the inscriptions issued. The purpose of this research is to reconstruct the history of Lampung's ruler over these two kingdoms through inscription data. In answering these problems, a descriptive archaeological method was applied in this study. It can be seen that the Palembang Sultanate was more oriented towards a “hard power” approach, while the Banten Sultanate was oriented towards a combination of “hard power” and “soft power”.

Keywords: Banten, Dalung, Lampung, Palembang, Piyagĕm

COMMODITIES OF HO-LING FOR CHINA CIRCA 7TH CENTURY A.D.

Ho-ling was well known for Chinese traders. However, this Kingdom has not studied in detail yet. Chinese sources mentioned that in Ho-ling they obtained ivory, tortoise shells and other luxury commodities for Yueh people in north China. Where did Ho-ling obtain those commodities? This paper will try to find the correlation between those data with archaeological studies in Patiayam—located south of Ho-ling Palace in Muria Mountain area. Patiayam is a prehistoric site. Archaeological studies found fossils which mostly similar with commodities mentioned in China sources. It assumes that Patiayam was Ho-ling kingdom territories, so Ho-ling’s people have collected fossil and sold it to traders. The Chinese traders brought it to China and redistributed it especially to Yueh people in the north. This study shows that archaeologist should think that their site was occupied my many cultural periods, so reconstruction of the past will be more deep and detail.

Keywords: Commodity; Ho-ling; fossils; Patiayam-Central Java-Indonesia

DISSECTING GENDER ROLES AND WOMEN DOMESTICATION IN PREHISTORY: BIOARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDY FROM GILIMANUK SITES

Women domestication can be defined as process of confining women to the domestic spheres. Gender roles and division of labour by sex become key components to understand this process among society in the past. This article aims to dissect gender roles and labour division by sex among prehistoric community in Gilimanuk sites in order to deconstruct myth about women domestication. This research were conducted using qualitative methods, with bioarchaeological framework and gender discourse analysis. Result show that existence of non-pathological condition can give difference narrative about gender roles, rather than only view this phenomenon on labelled material culture. Result also show that Gilimanuk society do not have specific gender roles both in physical activity and material cultures. Which indicate that women domestication might not happen or started during this period.

Keywords: bioarchaeology; gender roles; women domestication ; entheseal change

THE FLOWERS AND ANIMALS ORNAMENT IN ARCA SIWA NATIONAL MUSEUM COLLECTION

Shiva is one of the highest gods in Hinduism along with Lord Brahma and Lord Vishnu. The three of them are often referred to as Trimurti and have their respective duties, namely creation by Lord Brahma, preserver by Lord Vishnu, and destroyer by Lord Shiva. Worship of Lord Vishnu is often found in various regions as evidenced by some of his remains in the form of therianthropic (phallus) and anthropomorphic (human body statues). Lord Shiva in his anthropomorphic form has many depictions, both standing, sitting cross-legged, or sitting on his vehicle. One of the most interesting depictions found at the National Museum is the depiction of Lord Shiva standing in a standing position with flowers on the upper right and animals on the upper left. The uniqueness of this depiction raises a question, how is the relationship between the two ornaments and Lord Shiva? The purpose of raising this question is to find out the meaning of the depiction of the two ornaments. To answer this question, a series of methods began with data collection, continued with description and analysis, and ended with explanation and interpretation. The results obtained indicate that the padma flower and a goose is a represent of the religion activities in the Shiva Siddhanta sect.

Keywords: Mahadeva; Shiva Siddhanta; Padma Flower; Hamsa

PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF POTTERY TECHNOLOGY AND MATERIAL RESOURCES AT MULYOSARI SITE, BANYUWANGI

The existence of pottery findings in megalithic sites are well known as a marker of culturally complex megalithic societies. Analysis conducted towards pottery findings directly associated with megalithic were still uncommon. This research aims are to understand the technology and the material source of pottery findings at Mulyosari Site, Banyuwangi. Petrographic analysis carried out to several excavated pottery samples. All the samples were not randomly chosen, instead they were based on specific character of pottery fragments. The result of petrographic analysis shows advanced pottery making technology using spinning wheel and open firing at 400 Celcius degrees. Mineral identification during petrographic analysis pointed the source of pottery material located within geological formation of research area. Thus, pottery fragments become the most recognizable findings among all types of archaeological sites, including Mulyosari Site.

Keywords: pottery; Muyosari site; petrography; material source; technology

APPLICATION OF GEOELECTRIC FOR MEGALITHIC SITES IDENTIFICATION IN PEKAUMAN VILLAGE, BONDOWOSO REGENCY

This article explains the use of the geoelectrical method in prospecting buried artifacts underneath the fields nearby heritage area of Pekauman. By utilizing a geoelectrical device, we can assume – based on the visual image and different color, that there was an artificial stone laid beneath the land. It proved that the Geoelectric device has detected the image of the artificial shape of the structure beneath surface. Otherwise, obtained information from this method is very important in giving preliminary data, particularly defining the coordinate number of locations before excavation. Excavation projects will cost less money than those who have no preliminary information. This preliminary data will guide the landowners when they are going to digging the foundation or any underground structure, to avoid demolition of underneath cultural heritage objects.

Keywords: Geoelectric; Site; Megalitic; Bondowoso

THE SLENDER AGASTYA STATUE IN THE MPU PURWA MUSEUM COLLECTION: OVERVIEW OF ICONOGRAPHY AND PLACE OF ORIGIN

This study aims to examine and identify the place of origin of the slender Agastya statue (arca) that is stored in the Mpu Purwa museum, Malang City. The object of study is the Agastya which is depicted with a slender stomach, partially curled hair that is loose on the back; holding the trident weapon from its backrest. The research method used was descriptive qualitative analysis with iconography, ecology, contextual, and historical studies. The result stated that the Agastya was influenced by the Gupta-Indian style, which appeared in the VIII to IX centuries in Central Java. Furthermore, the Agastya statue comes from the ruins of the Karangbesuki temple (located in Karangbesuki Village). The Agastya acts as a Hindu temple mandala statue that was placed in a niche outside the south side of the wall. This finding is expected to be useful for other further research.

Keywords: Statue; Agastya; Mpu Purwa Museum; Iconography

ROCK ART AND THE INFLUENCE OF PAECILOMYCES AT THE LEANG PETTAE PREHISTORIC CAVE, MAROS - SOUTH SULAWESI

The culture of rock art provides evidence of the existence of human life activities in caves in prehistoric times. The rock art culture has been going on for thousands of years. This very long span of time, resulted in many rock arts being damaged and threatened with extinction. Damage to rock arts is also caused by natural and cultural factors. This paper will identify the microorganisms that cause damage to the rock arts. The microorganism samples studied here were taken from around rock arts at the Leang (cave) Pettae site. The samples were cultured on PDA (Potatoes Dextrose Agar) medium at the Biology Laboratory of the Borobudur Conservation Center. The isolate observation was carried out based on the growth rate; colony color; colony diameter; hyphal state; color and shape of the spores. The analysis showed that the type of fungi was able to grow on PDA medium and identified from the genus Paecilomyces. This type of fungi produces protease enzymes which can affect the organic elements of rock arts. To minimize the influence of fungi on rock arts, monitoring efforts are needed to the prehistoric cave environment.

Keywords: rock arts; Paecilomyces; conservation; Leang Pettae site

ISLAMIC TRADITION IN ULU INSCRIPTION AND MANUSCRIPT AT PASEMAH AREA, SOUTH SUMATRA, INDONESIA

Ulu script were developed in the Southern Sumatra region, the word "ulu" means it comes from the upstream of a river or higher land. Inscriptions and manuscripts using ulu script are found in many communities in the Pasemah region. The relation between ulu's inscription and manuscript to Islam are very dominant in terms of their decorations. Inscriptions and manuscripts that were successfully identified are about farming, medicine, and mantras (read: prayers). In relation to farming, for example, Islamic astrology was being use as a guide in planting certain types of plants. Religion (belief) that was embraced by the Pasemah community since prehistoric times until now, has created an identity that is different. The Islamic tradition which was written in ulu's manuscript or inscriptions are also can be seen in their people's views. In this case, there are three groups of people's views regarding ulu's, which are: profane, semi-sacred, and sacred.

Keywords: Ulu script; inscriptions; manuscripts; Islamic tradition

THE TOPONYMY OF THE VILLAGES IN AMBON ISLAND: A HISTORICAL-ARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDY

Many previous researchers have conducted studies about Ambon toponymy. However, previous studies have not used the historical-archaeological approach. The use of this approach are enabling researchers to reveal the cross-cultural interactions in a specific locus. Taking the Island of Ambon as a locus, the researchers are aiming not only to find the origin of the village names, but also their cultural intersection in Leihitu and Leitimor Peninsula. Three steps were conducted by the researchers to collect and analyse data. Firstly, identification and tabulation of the village names mentioned by the Hikayat Tanah Hitu (The Epic of Hitu Land) and three ancient cartographies. Secondly, identification of various archaeological remains located in the villages. Finally, the researchers analysed the origin of village names by searching the word-meaning; finding the present location; and describing the role of the contemporary culture in the past. There were 12 villages with 22 archaeological remains. All related communities have the archaeological remains which could explain the local dynamics, however there are only ten villages which the meaning of their names could be identified.

Keywords: toponymy; cultural identity; Leihitu; Leitimor; etymology

MOTIVATION AND PERCEPTION OF VISITORS TOWARDS TOURISM ATTRIBUTE IN SANGIRAN ANCIENT MAN MUSEUM, KRIKILAN CLUSTER

One of Indonesia’s tourist destinations which included in the Heritage Tourism category is Sangiran Ancient Man Site. As a tourist destination, The Sangiran Ancient Man Museum, Krikilan Cluster and four other museums, needs a concern to some important elements in the development and management of tourism destinations such as destination attributes which are then often linked to the motivation and perceptions of tourists, which related to tourist satisfaction of the destination. This article provides information on visitors’ motivations and perceptions of the Museum of Early Man, Krikilan Cluster based on quantitative research conducted on 533 participants. The results are expected to contribute to the museum in order to support its maintenance, management, and development to be a leading tourist destination.

Keywords: motivation; perception; Museum Sangiran; tourist destination

LOCAL WISDOM: PRESERVATION EFFORT TO IMOGIRI BURIAL SITE AS COMMUNITY LIFE SOURCE

Imogiri burial site is a privileged site the life in Imogiri began. This site has values, as it provides benefits for the locals. This research is done to know the value of Imogiri grave site, the benefits of the site provides to the local and the preservation efforts of the community to the site. This research aims to bring out the role of society to their cultural heritage that has been less attention. The research begins with surveys, observations, and interviews to collect data. The literature study was conducted to produce explanations related to Imogiri's tomb history, Javanese beliefs, and cultural heritage preservation theories. Furthermore, identification of the value of Imogiri burial site and analysis on the benefits of Imogiri burial site and the preservation efforts of the local community of the site were accomplished. The result of this study demonstrates that local wisdom has been effective effort to preserve Imogiri's burial site as a community life source.

Keywords: Imogiri; burial; site; preservation; local wisdom