In Editorial

The editorial process for our next edition is in full swing. Articles below are under our considerations, and undergoing editorial processes. Author names are omitted from this list due to the nature of our double blind peer review process.

Volume 40, 2020

GUA BATU: HUNIAN PRASEJARAH DI PEGUNUNGAN MERATUS BAGIAN TENGGARA

Gua Batu is an archaeological site found in the southeast Meratus Mountain, in Kotabaru Regency. Research in this area found new finding that shows traces of human activites. This article discusses how human habitation in Gua Batu. The data for this research was the result from archaeological excavation in Gua Batu in 2018. Archaeological analysis carried out is classification, morphology analysis, space and time anaylsis. This research result shows that Gua Batu were prehistoric dwelling from 4,300 BC. Exploitation of natur resources is seen in the use of shellfish and animals around it as one of the energy sources.

Keywords: Gua Batu; prehistory; lithic; shellfish; Meratus; Kotabaru

TEMUAN NASKAH NASKAH KUNO BERHURUF ARAB SEBAGAI WUJUD KARYA CENDEKIAWAN MUSLIM DI JAWA

Ancient manuscripts are handwritten works that hold various expressions of thoughts and feelings as a result of past national culture. Significant research results in the study of Indonesian Islam are written evidence that has strong Islamic attributes, especially Arabic script and letters, Arabic, Malay and regional languages (pegon). The purpose of this paper is to convey information to the wider community about important content contained in ancient manuscripts to be used as learning material in the present and in the future. Descriptively the writer will present a number of ancient manuscripts to determine their contents based on understandings of the contents or content contained in these ancient manuscripts.

Keywords: expression; significant; attribute; learning

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF CAVES AND ROCK SHELTER IN ACEH BESAR REGENCY (A PRELIMINARY REPORT)

The Western Coast of Aceh has a wide karst landscape that has large potential to find caves or rock-shelters. Caves and rock shelters are natural formations that can be used as settlements. Lack of information about the archaeological evidences in this area especially for prehistoric life. So because of that, archeological surveys to find that were carried out. Three parameters are used to determine the archeological potential of caves and rock shelter are morphology and genesis; morpho-association and environment; and archaeological content. Eleven caves and rock shelters have been found where three caves are very potential categories, three other caves with potential categories, and five caves are no potential categories.

Keywords: Caves and Rock Shelter; Karst; Western Coast of Aceh; Prehistory

IN SEARCH OF CLASSIC ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS LOCATION REPORTED BY OUDHEIDKUNDIG DIENST IN MAGELANG AREA

Java was once become the center of Hindu and Buddhist culture around the 6th until 14th century AD. The number of archeological remains from this period are infinite, both monumental remains such as: temples or water sanctuary, and loose relics such as: yoni, linga or even statues. These remains has been registered systematically since the reign of Dutch East Indies government through the Department of Antiquities (Oudheidkundig Dienst). In spite of many have been reported, most of them are no longer known exactly where they are and how they are. Some of the remains were later discovered unexpectedly during building construction or agricultural work. They also found to be in a damaged condition. This research attempt to vestige the classic archeological remains location that have been reported by the Dutch Archaeological Service using Geographic Information System approach. The remains location mapping reported by the Dutch East Indies Service can be used for deep survey activities, inventory, and also protection and preservation efforts.

Keywords: classic remains; Rapporten Oudheidkundigen Dienst; GIS; toponym

THE RITUAL LANDCAPE OF MAN-MADE CAVE IN THE EAST JAVANESE CLASSCICAL PERIOD (9TH TO 15TH CENTURIES) IN KEDIRI AND TULUNGAGUNG

Landscapes of Ancient East Javanese Hindu-Buddhist religious sites were not built anywhere, their position determined by people perspective in the 11th to 15th century. The ancient East Javanese religious sites were built on the slopes of hills. This paper reveals the main trait of landscape archaeology with Heidegger Phenomenological approach in archaeology to the rock-cut architecture, i.e. cave temples and hermitages in the ancient Javanese period (11th up to 15th centuries). Landscape Archaeology provides valuable clues about how ancient Javanese people saw the landscape around them, and how it was developed and created. It confirms the importance of space based on Hindu-Buddhist cosmological concept which determined the ritual landscape. This cosmological space also reveals the division of slopes based on the level of the places according to Triloka concept which explains lower world (Bhurloka), middle world (Bhuvarloka), and upper world (Svarloka). This thesis also offers a reflection on the structure of the religious places and its relations with conceptualized space, showing the influence of Hindu-Indian thought, as well as its limits.

Keywords: Ritual Landscape; Archaeology; Ancient Javanese; Triloka

MAJAPAHIT DAN NEGERI-NEGERI SEZAMAN: INTERAKSI DAN PANDANGAN

Kajian ini tentang Kerajaan Majapahit yang berkembang antara abad ke-14—15 M. Pembahasan yang dilakukan berkenaan dengan interaksi antara Majapahit dengan negeri-negeri lain pada masa yang sama di kawasan kepulauan Nusantara, Asia Tenggara, India, dan Cina. Dibicarakan pula pandangan Majapahit terhadap negeri-negeri tersebut dan sebaliknya, serta konsep dasar pandangan Majapahit terhadap negeri-negeri yang dikenalnya pada waktu yang sama. Dalam melakukan kajian yang sebenarnya berada di ranah sejarah kuno diadakan 3 tahap telaah, yaitu mengumpulkan data yang termaktub dalam sumber tertulis seperti prasasti, karya sastra dan Berita Cina, data arkeologis hanya bersifat mendukung. Tahap kedua melakukan analisis dengan mengaitkan data dengan data lain mencari elemen data yang saling mendukung dan selalu mengacu kepada fenomena kerangka kajian yang telah ditentukan. Tahap ketiga adalah penarikan interpretasi untuk mengarah kepada kesimpulan.

Keywords: Nagarakrtagama; Nusantara; pandangan; prasasti; Berita Cina; Cheng-ho; India

MAKARA CANDI ADAN-ADAN: GAYA SENI IKONOGRAFI MASA KAḌIRI

This paper explains about the mākara found in research at Adan-Adan Temple, Kediri. Mākara Adan-Adan Temple is so far the largest mākara in Indonesia and in terms of iconography has distinctive features. Data collection was carried out at the time of the study by making detailed observations either directly or through photographs, then describing them. Through a comparative study by comparing it to the mākara-mākara from different periods, namely the Matarām Kuno period, the Srīwijaya period, and the Siŋhasāri / Majapahit period, it is known that the Adan-Adan Temple mākara has special characteristics, and can be included in the mākara of the Kāḍiri period (transitional period of Matarām Kuno to Siŋhasāri / Majapahit).

Keywords: Mākara; Adan-Adan Temple; style; the Kāḍiri period

PENGARUH PERUBAHAN LINGKUNGAN TERHADAP PROSES BUDAYA DI CEKUNGAN WONOSARI

Wonosari Basin is part of the karst mountains in southern Java which has various archeological remains from the Prehistoric period, the Classical period, to the Islamic - Colonial period. The long time period and its archeological remains illustrate the process of cultural change in the Wonosari Basin. Research need to be carried out to illustrate how the cultural process occurs and what factors influence its changing. The cultural process approach emphasizes the study of synchronic and diachronic in order to illustrate how the process of cultural evolution and the factors that influence its changing. Through this approach, it was obtained that the environment has dominant impact on the cultural process in the Wonosari Basin, which was strengthened by changing human settlement patterns. Originally humans living in caves in the karst mountains move to the Wonosari Basin because its environtment provides flat area and surface water resources easily to access. The pattern of community settlements has changed due to reduced water discharge in the Wonosari Basin. Changes in the environment also have an impact on changing the system of subsistence, occupational patterns, and technological developments, the implication of which is the increasing complexity of the people in the area. Research conducted shows that the environment has a significant significant role in the cultural process of a region.

Keywords: Gunung Sewu; Wonosari Basin; Culture Process

PERISTIWA POLITIK DI SEKITAR PEMAHATAN RELIEF CERITA RAMAYANA DAN KṚṢṆACARITRA DI KOMPLEKS PERCANDIAN LARA JONGGRANG

The Lara Jonggrang temple is one of the temples in Java that attracts the interest of several re-searchers from various scientific disciplines. No less than hundreds or even thousands of studies have been made towards this temple. However, many discussions about this temple do not neces-sarily close the possibility of further discussions or just simply reinterpreting old problems through innovative approaches. One of the goals of this article is to reopen the old discourse about Lara Jonggrang's baths which are considered to have reached the final stage through re-search questions, what events occurred during the construction, inauguration, and carving of the relief stories of Rāmāyana and Krsnacaritra in the Lara Jonggrang Temple? Through descrip-tive-analytical research, it turns out that several things that have been considered conclusive have still kept a few surprises from different interpretations. Through this article, Rakai Pikatan which is regarded as a milestone in the development, inauguration, and carving of story relief in Lara Jonggrang Temple needs to be criticized. The emergence of new characters such as Rakai Kayuwangi who played a major role in the construction, inauguration, and carving of the story relief became one of the important points in the re-interpretation of social-historical events dur-ing the construction, inauguration, and carving of the story relief in the Lara Jonggrang Temple.

Keywords: Lara Jonggrang Temple; stories relief; Rāmāyana; Krsnacaritra

PEMAKNAAN ARCA GANESHA BERHIAS ULAR KOLEKSI MUSEUM CANDI PRAMBANAN, YOGYAKARTA

Ganesha is the popular Hindu deity after the Trimurti. He is worshiped because his existence can provide prosperity and avoid all obstacles and distress. He is depicted with various manifestations. One of them, found at the Prambanan Temple Museum, Yogyakarta that described as having a snake and mouse ornament. This image has never been found anywhere else, so we need a study to find out the mythological story inherent in that form and also to understand the people associated with these forms in everyday life. This study uses descriptive analysis with iconographic studies as the basis. The results obtained indicate that the Ganesha is the harvest deity.

Keywords: Ganesha, Harvest Deity, Snake, and Musika

MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN PADA TAHUN 1469 M (STUDI KASUS TIGA PRASASTI LERENG SEMERU)

This study aims to analyze and interpret the existence of instructional media that existed in the classical period of the Hindu Buddhist kingdom. The object of the study is the three inscriptions from the Semeru Slope namely, Widodaren, Pasrujambe, and Gerbha. The research method used is a qualitative method with the archeological-historical studies. Data collection was carried out with literature study and primary data review of the inscriptions by in-situ research. The analysis of the inscription uses structural analysis in the form of transliteration of the contents and meaning written at the inscription under study. This study found that there is evidence of the use of instructional media in teaching process supported by Negarakrtagama and Bujangga Manik which contain educational moral value as one of the characteristic of instructional media. This finding is expected to enrich the educational horizon, especially in the realm of archeology, education, and history.

Keywords: Instructional Media; Education; Inscription; Semeru Slope