ARKEOLOGI FORENSIK: PERKEMBANGAN DAN CAPAIANNYA DI INDONESIA

  • Rusyad Adi Suriyanto Laboratorium Bioantropologi dan Paleoantropologi, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Keywords: Archaeology, Bioarchaeology, Forensic Archaeology, Indonesia

Abstract

Forensic archeology is defined as the application of archaeological principles and techniques in medico-legal and/or humanity context related to buried evidence. Forensic archaeologist has two roles, as the expert who unearth buried objects systematically and reconstruct them. This paper discusses the role of archeology and archaeologists in the excavation of criminal, humanitarian and disaster victims. Archaeologist’s role to reveal paleoanthropological materials smuggled and theft is also discussed in this paper. Humanitarian missions to investigate mass grave of victims of war, political strife and genocide in the past and the present are other archaeologist’s role discussed in this paper. The existence, condition and development of forensic archaeology in Indonesia emphasize the significance of new paradigm in Indonesian archaeology. Forensic archeology not merely focusess on the study of cultural materials of the past, education and museum development, cultural resource management and its advocacy, but it also has role in medico-legal works. Forensic archaeologist also engages in disaster victim identification (DVI) that addresses issues related to victims buried by either natural or human disasters.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ballbé, E.G. & Steadman, D.W. 2008. “The Political, Social and Scientific Contexts of Archaeological Investigations of Mass Graves in Spain”. Archaeologies 4: 429 – 444.

Barone, P.M. 2012. “Archaeology, Geophysics and Forensic: United We Stand, Divided We Fall”. Geophysics 1: 131 – 137.

Bernardi, P. & Fondebrider, L. 2007. “Forensic Archaeology and the Scientific Documentation of Human Rights Violations: An Argentinian Example from the Early 1980s”, dalam R. Ferlini (ed.) Forensic Archaeology and Human Rights Violations. Springfield: Charles C Thomas. Hlm. 205 – 232.

Black, S. 2000. “Forensic Osteology in the United Kingdom”, dalam M. Cox & S. Mays (eds.) Human Osteology in Archaeology and Forensic Science. London: Greenwich Medical Media. Hlm. 491 – 503.

Blau, S. 2004. “Forensic Archaeology in Australia: Current Situations, Future Possibilities”. Australian Archaeology 58:11 – 14.

Blau, S. & Fondebrider, L. 2010. “Dying for Independence: Proactive

Investigations into the 12 November 1991 Santa Cruz Massacre, Timor Leste”. The International Journal of Human Rights 15: 1249 – 1274.

Blau, S., Fondebrider, L. & Saldanha, G. 2011. “Working with Families of the Missing: A Case Study from East Timor”, dalam K. Lauritsch & F. Kernjak (eds.) We Need the Truth: Enforced Disappearances in Asia. Guatemala: ECAP. Hlm. 136 – 144.

Blau, S. & Hill, T. 2009. “Disaster Victim Identification: A Review”. Minerva Medico-legale 129: 35 – 36.

Blau, S. & Ubelaker, D.H. 2009. “Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology: Introduction to A Broader View”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 21 – 26.

Boedhihartono 1998. “A New Homo erectus Finding”. Jurnal Antropologi Indonesia 54: 121 – 125.

Broadfield, D.C., Holloway, R.L., Mowbray, K., Silvers, A., Yuan, M.S., Márquez,

S. 2001. “Endocast of Sambungmacan 3 (Sm 3): A New Homo erectus from Indonesia”. The Anatomical Record 262: 369 – 379.

Burns, K.R. 1999. Forensic Anthropology Training Manual. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Byers, S.N. 2011. Introduction to Forensic Anthropology, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc.

Cabo, L.L., Dirkmaat, D.C., Adovasio, J.M. & Rozas, V.C. 2012. Archaeology, Mass Graves, and Resolving Commingling Issues Through Spatial Analysis”, dalam D.C. Dirkmaat (ed.) A Companion to Forensic Anthropology. Chichester: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Hlm. 175 – 195.

Cheetham, P.N. & Hanson, I. 2009. “Excavation and Recovery in Forensic Archaeological Investigations”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 141 – 149.

Congram, D. & Sterenberg, J. 2009. Grave Challenges in Iraq”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 441 – 453.

Connor, M. & Scott, D.D. 2001. “Paradigms and Perpetrators”. Historical Archaeology 35: 1 – 6.

Crossland, Z. 2000. “Buried Lives: Forensic Archaeology and the Disappeared in Argentina”. Archaeological Dialogues 72: 146 – 159.

Cox, M., Flavel, A., Hanson, I., Laver, J. & Wessling, R. 2008. The Scientific Investigation of Mass Graves. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cox, M. 2009. “Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology: Past and Present – A United Kingdom Perspective”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 29 – 41.

Crist, T. A. J. 2001. “Bad to the Bone? Historical Archaeologist in the Practise of Forensic Science”. Historical Archaeology 35: 39 – 56.

Crossland, Z. 2013. “Evidential Regimes of Forensic Archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology 42: 121 – 137.

Davenport, A & Harrison, K. 2011. “Swinging the Blue Lamp: the Forensic Archaeology of Contemporary Child and Animal Burial in the UK”. Mortality 16: 176 – 190.

Delson, E., Harvati, K., Reddy, D., Marcus, L.F., Mowbray, K., Sawyer, G.J., Jacob, T. & Márquez, S. 2001. “The Sambungmacan 3 Homo erectus Calvaria: A Comparative Morphometric and Morphological Analysis”. The Anatomical Record 262: 380 – 397.

Dirkmaat, D.C. & Adovasio, J.M. 1997. “The Role of Archaeology in the Recovery and Iinterpretation of Human Remains from An Outdoor

Forensic Setting”, dalam W.W. Haglund & M.M. Sorg (eds.) Forensic

Taphonomy: the Postmortem Fate of Human Remains. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Hlm. 39 – 64.

Dirkmaat, D.C., Cabo, L.L., Ousley, S.D. & Symes, S.A. 2008. “New

Perspectives in Forensic Anthropology”. American Journal of Physical

Anthropology 137 (S47): 33 – 52.

Duhig, C. 2003. “Non-forensic Remains: the Use of Forensic Archaeology, Anthropology and Burial Taphonomy”. Science & Justice, 43: 211 – 214.

Dupras, T.L., Schultz, J.J., Wheeler, S.M. & Williams, L.J. 2012. Forensic

Recovery of Human Remains: Archaeological Approaches, 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Ellis, P. 2007. “Archaeology and Forensic Pathologist”, dalam R. Ferlini (ed.) Forensic Archaeology and Human Rights Violations. Springfield: Charles C Thomas. Hlm. 101 – 121.

Ferlini, R. 2007. Human Rights Violations, Past and Present: Concequences and Interventions”, dalam R. Ferlini (ed.) Forensic Archaeology and Human Rights Violations. Springfield: Charles C Thomas. Hlm. 3 – 23.

Flavel, A. & Barker, C. 2009. “Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology in Guatemala”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 426 – 440.

Galloway, A. & Simmons, T. 1997. “Education in Forensic Anthropology: Appraisal and Outlook”. Journal of Forensic Science 42: 796 – 801.

Glinka, J. 2001. “Morphological Variation of Contemporary Indonesians, dalam E. Indriati (ed.) A Scientific Life: Papers in Honor of Prof. Dr. T. Jacob – Proceeding of Conference on Man: Past, Present and Future. Yogyakarta: Bigraf Publishing. Hlm. 91 – 104.

Gould, R.A. 2004a. “Disaster Archaeology at the West Warwick Rhode Island Night-club Fire Scene”. Archaeological Record 4: 6 – 11.

__________ 2004b. “WTC Archaeology: What We Saw, What We Learned, and What We Did About It”. Archaeological Record 4: 11 – 17.

Gowland, R. & Thompson, T. 2013. Human Identity and Identification.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Haglund, W.D. 2001. “Archaeology and Forensic Death Investigations”. Historical Archaeology 35: 26 – 34.

Haglund, W.D., Connor, M. & Scott, D.D. 2001. “The Archaeology of

Contemporary Mass Grave”. Historical Archaeology 35: 57 – 69.

Hochrein, M. 2002. “Polar Coordinate Mapping and Forensic Archaeology Within Confined Spaces”. Journal of Forensic Identification 52: 733 – 749.

__________ 2009. “Domestic Homicide Investigations: United States”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 351 – 362.

Holland, T.D. & Connell, S.V. 2009. “The Search for and Detection of Human Remains, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 129 – 140.

Hoshower, L.M. 1998. “Forensic Archaeology and the Need for Flexible Excavation Strategies: A Case Study”. Journal of Forensic Science 43: 53 – 56.

Hunter, J.R. 2002. “A Background to Forensic Archaeology, dalam J. Hunter, C. Roberts & A. Martin (eds.) Studies in Crime: An Introduction to Forensic Archaeology. New York: Routledge. Hlm. 7 – 23.

Hunter, J. 2009. “Domestic Homicide Investigations in the United Kingdom”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 363 – 373.

Hunter, J. & Cox, M. 2005a. “Introduction”, dalam J. Hunter & M. Cox (eds.) Forensic Archaeology: Advances in Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge. Hlm. 1 – 26.

__________ 2005b. Search and Location: Case Studies 1 – 13”, dalam J. Hunter & M. Cox (eds.) Forensic Archaeology: Advances in Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge. Hlm. 27 – 61.

__________ 2005c. “The Recovery of Forensic Evidence from Individual Graves: Case Studies 14 – 29”, dalam J. Hunter & M. Cox (eds.) Forensic Archaeology: Advances in Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge. Hlm. 96 – 136.

Hunter, J., Simpson, B. & Colls, C.S. 2013. Forensic Approaches to Buried Remains. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.

Indriati, E. 1999. “Peran Antropologi Forensik Pada Identifikasi”, dalam R. Soegandhi (ed.) Aplikasi Ilmu Kedokteran Forensik untuk Identifikasi. Yogjakarta: Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada. Hlm. 77 – 89.

__________ 2003. “Mati: Tinjauan Klinis dan Antropologi Forensik”. Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran 35: 231 – 239.

__________ 2004. Antropologi Forensik: Identifikasi Rangka Manusia, Aplikasi Antropologi Biologis dalam Konteks Hukum. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

__________ 2009. “Historical Perspectives on Forensic Anthropology in Indonesia”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 115 – 125.

Jacob, T. 1984. “Bioanthropologi Kematian”, dalam I. Nuhriawangsa (ed.) Kelahiran, Kehidupan dan Kematian. Yogyakarta: Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada. Hlm. 97 – 105.

__________ 1999. “Identifikasi Manusia”, dalam R. Soegandhi (ed.) Aplikasi Ilmu Kedokteran Forensik untuk Identifikasi. Yogjakarta: Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada. Hlm. 1 – 11.

_________ 2000. “Antropologi Forensik”, dalam E. Indriati (ed.) Buku Bacaan Antropologi Biologis. Jakarta: Direktorat Pendidikan Tinggi Departemen Pendidikan Nasional RI. Hlm. 137 – 148.

Jankauskas, R. 2009. “Forensic Anthropology and Mortuary Archaeology in Lithuania”. Anthropologischer Anzeiger 67: 391 – 405.

Jessee, E. & Skinner, M. 2005. “A Typology of Mass Grave and Mass Grave- Related Sites”. Forensic Science International 152: 55 – 59.

Juhl, K. 2005. The Contribution by (Forensic) Archaeologists to Human Rights Investigations of Mass Graves. Stavanger: Arkeologisk museum i Stavanger.

Juhl, K. & Olsen, O.E. 2006. “Societal Safety, Archaeology and the Investigation of Contemporary Mass Graves. Journal of Genocide Research 8: 411 – 435.

Kalanjati, V.P. 2012. “Program Pendidikan Anatomi Antropologi dan Forensik di Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Airlangga Surabaya, Indonesia”, dalam M.D. Artaria & F.N. Ariningsih (eds.) Bunga Rampai Antropologi Ragawi: 80 Tahun Prof. Dr. Habil. Jozef Glinka SVD. Surabaya: Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Airlangga. Hlm. 113 – l18.

Kepolisian Republik Indonesia 2006. Disaster Victim Identification: Pedoman Penatalaksanaan Identifikasi Korban Mati pada Bencana Massal. Jakarta: Departemen Kesehatan RI dan Kepolisian Negara RI.

Kinsella, N & Blau, S 2013. “Searching for Conflict-related Missing Persons in Timor-Leste: Technical, Political and Cultural Considerations”. Stability 2: 1 – 14.

Larsen, C.S. 2000. Bioarchaeology: Interpreting Behavior from the Human Skeleton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Laitman, J.T. & Tattersall, I. 2001. “Homo erectus newyorkensis: An Indonesian Fossil Rediscovered in Manhattan Sheds Light on the Middle Phase of Human Evolution”. The Anatomical Record 262: 341 – 343.

Litherland, S., Márquez-Grant, N. & Roberts, J. 2012. “Forensic Archaeology”, dalam N. Márquez-Grant & J. Roberts (eds.) Forensic Ecology Handbook: from Crime Scene to Court. Chichester: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Hlm. 23 – 48.

López, A.M.G. & Umańa, A.P. 2007. “Who Is Missing? Problems in the

Application of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology in Columbia’s

Conflict”, dalam R. Ferlini (ed.) Forensic Archaeology and Human Rights Violations. Springfield: Charles C Thomas. Hlm. 170 – 204.

Lovis, W.A. 1992. “Forensic Archaeology As Mortuary Anthropology”. Social Science & Medicine 34: 113 – 117.

Mark, J. 2010. “What Remains? Anti-communism, Forensic Archaeology, and the Retelling of the National Past in Lithuania and Romania”. Past and Present 206 (S5): 276 – 300.

Márquez, S., Mowbray, K., Sawyer, G.J., Jacob, T. & Silvers, A. 2001. “New Fossil Hominid Calvaria from Indonesia – Sambungmacan 3”. The Anatomical Record 262: 344 – 368.

Menez, L.L. 2005. “The Place of A Forensic Archaeologist at Acrime Scene Involving A Buried Body”. Forensic Science International 152: 311 – 315.

Morse, D., Crusoe, D. & Smith, H.G. 1976. “Forensic Archaeology”. Journal of Forensic Sciences 21: 323 – 332.

Morse, D., Duncan, J. Stoutamire, J. 1983. Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Tallahassee: Rose Printing.

Neave, R. 2000. “Forensic and Archaeological Reconstruction of the Human Face Upon the Skull”, dalam M. Cox & S. Mays (eds.) Human Osteology in Archaeology and Forensic Science. London: Greenwich Medical Media Ltd. Hlm. 325 – 333.

Owsley, D.W. 2001. “Why the Forensic Anthropologist Needs the

Archaeologist”. Historical Archaeology 35: 35 – 38.

Pate, F.D. 2005. “The Education of Archaeologists for the 21st Century”. Australian Archaeology 61:1 – 6.

Purwanti, S.H. 2013. Dari Bom Bali Hingga Tragedi Sukhoi: Keberhasilan DVI Indonesia dalam Mengungkap Berbagai Kasus. Jakarta: Rayyana Komunikasindo.

Rudovica,V., Viksna, A., Actins, A., Zarina, G., Gerhards, G. & Lusens, M. 2011. Investigation of Mass Graves in the Churchyard of St.gertrude’s, Riga, Latvia”. Interdisciplinaria Archaeologica II: 39 – 46.

Schultz, J.J. & Dupras, T.L. 2008. “The Contribution of Forensic Archaeology to Homicide Investigations”. Homicide Studies 12: 399 – 413.

Schats, R., Kootker, L.M., Hermsen, R., Davies, G.R. & Hoogland, M.L.P. 2014. “The Alkmaar Mass Graves: A Multidisciplinary Approach to War Victims and Gunshot Trauma, dalam C. Knüsel & M. Smith (eds.) The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict. New York: Routledge. Hlm. 455 – 472.

Scott, D.D. & Connor, M. 2001. “The Role and Future of Archaeology in Forensic Science”. Historical Archaeology 35: 101 – 104.

Sigler-Eisenberg, B. 1985 Forensic research: expanding the concept of applied archaeology. American Antiquity 50: 650 – 655.

Skinner, M. 2007. “Hapless in Afghanistan: Forensic Archaeology in A Political Maelstrom”, dalam R. Ferlini (ed.) Forensic Archaeology and Human Rights Violations. Springfield: Charles C Thomas. Hlm. 233 – 265.

Skinner, M.F. 1987. “Planning the Archaeological Recovery from Recent Mass Graves”. Forensic Science International 34: 267–287.

Skinner, M., Alempijevic, D. & Djuric-Srejic, M. 2003. “Guidelines for

International Forensic Bio-archaeology Monitors of Mass Grave

Exhumations”. Forensic Science International 134: 81 – 92.

Skinner, M. Bowie, K. 2009. “Forensic Anthropology: Canadian Content and Contributions”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 87 – 103.

Steadman, D.W., Basler, W., Hocbrein, M.J., Klein, D.F. & Goodin, J.C. 2009. “Domestic Homicide Investigations: An Example from the United States”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 351 – 362.

Steele, C. 2008. “Archaeology and the Forensic Investigation of Recent Mass Graves: Ethical Issues for A New Practice of Archaeology”. Archaeologies 4: 414 – 428.

Sterenberg, J. 2009. “Dealing with the Remains of Conflick: An International Response to Crimes Against Humanity, Forensic Recovery, Identification, and Repatriation in the Former Yugoslavia”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 416 – 425.

Stover, E. & Ryan, M. 2001. “Breaking Bread with the Dead”. Historical Archaeology 35: 7 – 25.

Suriyanto, R.A. 2008. “Beberapa Ukuran Antropometris Lengan, Tangan, Tungkai dan Kaki untuk Penduga Tinggi Badan dalam Kasus-kasus Forensik: Kajian teoretis dan Rekomendasi Berperspektif Indonesia dalam Antropologi Forensik”. Majalah Biomorfologi XXI: 41 – 56.

Suriyanto, R.A. 2012. “Mengenang Sang Perintis dan Tokoh Paleoantropologi Indonesia Prof. Dr. T. Jacob, M.S., M.D., D.Sc.: Paleoantropologi Indonesia dan Nasionalisme”, dalam T. Koesbardiati & R.A. Suriyanto (eds.) 3 Begawan Antropologi Biologis Indonesia: Ilmu, Aksi, dan Nasionalisme. Surabaya: Airlangga University Press. Hlm. 3 – 84.

Thompson, T. 2001. “Legal and Ethical Considerations of Forensic

Anthropological Research”. Science & Justice 41: 261 – 270.

__________ 2003. “Supply and Demand: the Shifting Expectations of Forensic Anthropology in the United Kingdom”. Science & Justice 43: 183 – 186.

Tuller, H. & Đurić, M. 2006. “Keeping the Pieces Together: Comparison of Mass Grave Excavation Methodology”. Forensic Science International 156: 192 – 200.

Tuller, H.H. 2012. “Mass Graves and Human Rights: Latest Development, Methods, and Lessons Learned”, dalam D.C. Dirkmaat (ed.) A Companion to Forensic Anthropology, 1st ed. Chichester: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Hlm. 157 – 174.

Ubelaker, D.H. 2009. “Historical Development of Forensic Anthropology: Perspectives from the United States”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 76 – 86.

Untoro, E. & Atmadja, D.S. 2012. “Pengalaman Pemeriksaan Antropologi Forensik dalam Mengidentifikasi Sisa-sisa Tulang Belulang Tentara Jepang yang Gugur Pada Masa Perang Dunia ke-2 di Papua Barat dan Makassar, Indonesia (Periode 1999 – 2009)”, dalam M.D. Artaria & F.N. Ariningsih (eds.) Bunga Rampai Antropologi Ragawi: 80 Tahun Prof. Dr. Habil. Jozef Glinka SVD. Surabaya: Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Airlangga. Hlm. 101 – l12.

Wright, R. & Hanson, I. 2009. “How to Do Forensic Archaeology Under the Auspices of the United Nations and Other Larger Organizations”, dalam S. Blau & D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. Hlm. 468 – 478.

Wright, R., Hanson, I. & Sterenberg, J. 2005. “The Archaeology of Mass Graves”, dalam J. Hunter & M. Cox (eds.) Forensic Archaeology: Advances in Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge. Hal.: 137 – 158.

Published
2016-05-31
How to Cite
Suriyanto, R. A. (2016). ARKEOLOGI FORENSIK: PERKEMBANGAN DAN CAPAIANNYA DI INDONESIA. Berkala Arkeologi, 36(1), 45-70. https://doi.org/10.30883/jba.v36i1.224
Section
Articles