KONTINUITAS DAN DISKONTINUITAS PERILAKU KORUPSI DI JAWA*

Djoko Dwiyanto(1*)

(1) Departemen Arkeologi; Fakultas Ilmu Budaya; Unversitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract

Corruption has become an inherent behaviour at any event in relationship among one and other parties, both transactionally or collusion and gratification. Both inscriptions and textual evidences in Old Javanese to Modern Javanese showed evidence of abuse of authority and irregularities which led to corruption.Usually, corruption occurs because there are chances and opportunities as well as social structures that encourage corruption. Dependency between the parties need 'protection' (clients) with the ruling party with authority (patron), led to the emergence of provision of services or repayment. Gratification is collusive and often involves various areas of life, both socio-economic and socio-cultural.

Keywords

Corruption; Abuse of authority; Collution; Inscription

References

Alatas, Syed Hussein. 1986. Sosiologi Korupsi. Jakarta: Penerbit Utama.

Anonim. 1975. Simposium Sejarah Hukum. Badan Pembinaan Hukum Nasional. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga.

Anonim. 1999. “Can Corruption be Measured?” dalam Banks World, Vol.3. No. 8 June. Washington DC: World Bank Group.

Bratsis, Peter. 2003. Corrupt Compared to What? : Greece, Capitalist Interests and the Specular Purity of the State. London: School of Economics and Political Science - Hellionistic Observatory.

Boechari. 1966. “Preliminary report on the discovery of an Old-Malay Inscription at Sodjomerto” dalam Madjalah Ilmu-Ilmu Sastra Indonesia III No. 2-3, Oktober 1966. Hlm. 241-251.

------------ 1975. “Jayapatra. Sekelumit tentang Pelaksanaan Hukum dalam Masyarakat Jawa Kuna” dalam Simposium Sejarah Hukum, Badan Pembinaan Hukum Nasional. Jakarta: Penerbit Binacipta.

Bosch, FDK. 1952. Srivijaya, Sailendra dan Sanjayawamsa. (terjemahan). Jakarta: Bhratara.

Bourguignan, Francois & Christian Morrison. 1992. Adjusment and Equiting in Developing Countries. Paris: OECD.

de Casparis, J.G. 1950. Inscripties uit de Sailendra Tijd - Prasasti Indonesia I. Bandung: A.C. Nix & Co.

de Graaf, Galt. 2004. “Portrait of Corruption : Towards a Contextual Theory of Corruption” dalam EGPA Annual Conference: Administering the New Europe. Slovenia.

Dwiyanto, Djoko. 1992. “Pajak dan Pembatasan Usaha di Jawa abad IX- XVI Masehi”. Laporan Penelitian. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada.

_____________ 1993. ”Metode Penelitian Epigrafi dalam Arkeologi” dalam Makalah dalam Evaluasi Hasil Penelitian Epigrafi. Trowulan: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional. 1 – 3 November 1992. Hlm. 1 – 15.

_____________ 1994. “Manfaat Sumber Data Arkeologi (Epigrafi) sebagai Acuan Penelusuran Harijadi Suatu Daerah” dalam Berkala Arkeologi, Tahun XIV, Edisi Khusus. Hlm. 6 – 9.

_____________ 2001. “Tinggalan Tertulis di Jawa Tengah” dalam Jawa Tengah: Sebuah Potret Warisan Budaya. Yogyakarta: Suaka Peninggalan Sejarah dan Purbakala Jawa Tengah dan Jurusan Arkeologi FIB-UGM. Hlm. 199-205.

_____________ 2003. Asal Usul dan Pengaruh Wangsa Sailendra di Pantai Utara Jawa Tengah. Makalah dalam Sarasehan Sejarah Daerah Karesidenan Pekalongan, di Pekalongan, 10 Mei 2003.

Deflem, Mathieu. 1995. “Corruption, Law and Justice” dalam Journal of Criminal 23(3). Hlm. 243-258.

Djafar, Hasan. 1978. Girindhrawarddhana. Beberapa Masalah Majapahit Akhir. Jakarta: Yayasan Dana Pendidikan Buddhis Nalanda.

Garraghan, Gilbert J. 1957. A Guide to Historical Method. East Fordham Road, New York: Fordham University Press.

Gatenby S. Hornby E. V. dan H Wakefield. 2005. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. London: Cambridge University Press. Hlm. 218.

Kubiak, Anna. 2001. Corruption in Everyday Experience: Report on Survey. Warsawa: Institute of Public Affairs.

Lopa, Baharuddin. 2002. Kejahatan Korupsi dan Penegakan Hukum. Jakarta: Penerbit Bulan Bintang.

Moore Jr., Barrington. 1965. Political Power and Social Theory. New York: Harper and Row Torchbooks. Hlm. 80 – 88.

Nakada, Kozo. 1985. “A few studies on the Kingdom of Ho-ling in Java” dalam Noboru Karashima (ed.) Indus Valley to Mekong Delta, Explorations in Epigraphy. Madras: New Era Publications. Hlm. 313-320.

Poerbatjaraka, R.M.Ng. 1956. Srivijaya, Sailendra dan Sanjayawamsa. (terjemahan) Jakarta: Bhratara.

Sahetapy, J.E. 1994. “Kejahatan Koorporasi” dalam Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial No. 5, Januari 1994. Jakarta: Univesitas Indonesia,.

Soemadio, Bambang, dkk. (ed.). 1992. Sejarah Nasional Indonesia, Jilid II (Jaman Kuna). Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Sumaryono, E. 1999. Hermeneutik: Sebuah Metode Filsafat. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisisus.

Sumijati, dkk. (ed.) 2001. Jawa Tengah: Sebuah Potret Warisan Budaya. Suaka Peninggalan Sejarah dan Purbakala Jawa Tengah dan Jurusan Arkeologi, Fakultas Ilmu Budaya UGM.

http://www.cos.sc.edu/socy/faculty/deflem/zcorrupt.pdf

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30883/jba.v34i1.179
Abstract viewed = | 139 | times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) downloaded = | 459 | times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.